About Us

Department of Economic Analysis & Research

Department of Economic Analysis & Research

1. Genesis

The Department of Economic Analysis and Research (DEAR) was set up to provide policy and action-oriented research support through macro-level data analysis and field-based feedback on issues of relevance to NABARD, the government and other stakeholders. It specialises in knowledge-driven activities relating to agriculture and rural development, as per the mandate of NABARD.

The strength of the department lies in the cadre of professional economists and its ability to network and collaborate with other reputed institutions.

2. Vision of Department of Economic Analysis and Research

“To develop into a quality research wing of NABARD that conducts and coordinates research to generate ideas, help evolve policy inputs, evaluate policy alternatives that would help the management in realising the objectives of the organisation and produce research output that improves NABARD’s understanding of the dimensions of rural credit in particular and overall rural development in general.”

3. Core Functions of the Department

A. Provide policy inputs to the management through research studies:

  • Conduct in-house studies and other research activities through subject matter specialists within the organisation at the Head Office and Regional Offices
  • Conduct studies in collaboration with reputed research institutions on state/region-specific issues

B. Management of the Research and Development (R&D) Fund

The R&D Fund was established by the bank in accordance with the provisions of the NABARD Act, 1981, to extend grant support broadly for the following purposes:

  • Research Projects/Studies

Studies and research projects supported under the R&D Fund aim at acquiring new insights into the problems of agriculture and rural development through in-depth studies, applied research and innovative approaches.During 2021-22, the studies sanctioned covered a variety of areas like value chain financing, aquaculture, rainfall and tank storage, agri-market, mega food parks, impact evaluation of credit under MSME, SHG/JLG, documenting stories of successful farmers, women empowerment under ‘My Pad My Right’, artificial intelligence, etc. In FY 2021-22, the following studies were completed:

S. No. Name of the Study Click to read report
1 Sustainable Development Goals for Rural Maharashtra: Achievements and Constraints https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2202225133nrs-19-sdgs-for-rural-maharashtra-achievements-and-constraints.pdf
2 Agriculture Value Chains in India: Ensuring Competitiveness, Inclusiveness, Sustainability, Scalability and Improved Finance https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2302225955agricultural-value-chains-in-india-ensuring-cissf.pdf
3 Mid-Term Evaluation Report of Climate Change Adaptation Projects funded from UNFCC Adaptation Fund https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/0903222313nrs-20-mid-term-evaluation-of-Climate-change-adaptation-projects.pdf
4 Study on Utilization of Banana Pseudostem for Textiles https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2803221907utipzation-of-banana-pseudostem-for-textiles.pdf
5 Farm Loan Waivers in India: Assessing Impact and the Road Ahead https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2304223730farm-loan-waivers-in-india-assessing-impact-and-looking-ahead_compressed.pdf
6 Rural Distress: Causes, Consequences and Cures (Antifragility) https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2405224430rural-distress-causes-consequences-and-cures-antifragipty.pdf
7 Handholding (Capacity Building and Facilitation) of FPOs: Framework to Implementation https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2705222930nrs-24-handholding-of-fpos-framework-to-implementation.pdf
8 Case Studies of FPOs in India, 2019-21 https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/0306220035case-studies-of-fpos-in-india-2019-21.pdf
9 Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus indica) as a Source of Fodder in Dry Areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1606221124nrs-26.pdf
10 Coastal Watershed-Based Surface and Subsurface Salinity Mapping and Modelling of Thiruvallur and Kanchipuram districts, Tamil Nadu for sustainable brackish water aquaculture https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2107222737NRS-27-Coastal-Watershed-Based-Surface-and-Sub-Surface-Sapnity-Mapping.pdf
11 Study on Improving Operational and Financial Efficiency of RRBs https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2208225431study-on-improving-operational-and-financial-efficiency-of-rrbs.pdf
  • Seminars/Conferences/Webinars, etc.
  • The R&D Fund is also utilised for sponsoring seminars to help disseminate research findings across stakeholders. By extending support towards seminar publications, NABARD strives to spread the research inputs on themes related to agriculture and rural development in multi-fold spheres and help relevant policy formulation.

  • NABARD Chair Unit Scheme
  • The NABARD Chair Unit Scheme is designed to establish strong research linkages with reputed institutions, with the objective of pursuing extensive research in NABARD’s areas of interest.

  • Publications
  • DEAR brings out publications in the form of Occasional Papers, Research Study Series, Knowledge Series, R&D Digest, Rural Pulse, Eco-think, Commodity Trend, etc. for wider dissemination of research outcomes among the stakeholders. These are uploaded on our website for reaching out to a larger audience. Officers in DEAR has also been contributing to reputed journals on topical issues.

  • Inputs for Parpamentary Committees, RBI and GoI
  • DEAR deals with questions/ clarifications/ requirements coming in from the Parliament, various Parliamentary Committees, RBI and GoI. Background notes for Parliamentary Committees are prepared on various topics. A recent background note on ‘NABARD’s Outlook on Growth of Agriculture Credit’, and inputs on ‘Water Use for Rice and Sugarcane Production in India’, Role of Bank for Upliftment of Rural Development,Capital Formation in Agriculture, etc.were provided to the Parliamentary Committee.

  • Student Engagement
  • NABARD has been engaging with the student community through Student Internship Scheme (SIS) from 2005-06. The objective of the Scheme is to assign short-term tasks/projects/studies useful and relevant to NABARD. We have broadened the ambit of our engagement with student community and included new schemes to our ambit, namely, Grameen Chintan, NABARD Gold Medal Scheme and NABARD Outstanding Ph.D Thesis Award.

C. Publication of Annual Report of NABARD

The department brings out the Annual Report of NABARD which documents a comprehensive picture of the major activities undertaken by NABARD in the previous financial year. It also carries the audited accounts for the relevant year along with key statistical statements as an adjunct.

D. Publication of Sustainability Report

NABARD prepares its Sustainability Report based on GRI Guidelines. It gives information about economic, environmental, social and governance performance of organisation. It highlights critical impacts of the organization’s functioning– on the environment, society and the economy.

E. Tracking the Economy

Earlier, the department had evolved a data tracking system, titled Rural Economy Tracker (RET) by bringing all important data relating to various aspects of the rural economy of India together. We now highlight the state of the economy along with providing the outlook on interest rate movement, inflation, bond yields etc. through two publications- (monthly bulletin- ‘EcoThink’ and a weekly bulletin- ‘EcoWatch’).

F. DEAR provides inputs to various committees for discussions in various fora on wide ranging topics such as Rural Distress, Value Chains, Doubling Farmers’ Income (DFI), FPOs, Agricultural Growth, Climate change and Social stock exchange. The department and its officers provide academic / secretarial support to the Committees where NABARD has a role.

G. Maintain the Central library of NABARD

DEAR maintains a well-stocked Central Library at its head office with over 25000 books besides journals, newspapers, magazines and on-line subscriptions, as knowledge support to its officials data.

4. In-House Publication:

DEAR bring out reports on issues of relevance to Indian agriculture and rural development. We have brought out publications on rural economy (contributed by all officers), COVID impact on rural economy, COVID induced migration, summaries of various national and international reports, women related issues (collection of articles by women from NABARD and outside on the eve of women’s day & edited by women), and an overview of Indian economy in five quarters from April 2021 to June 2022 along with our in-house bi-monthly magazine ‘Rural Pulse’ and a new series named ‘Research and Policy’.

A. Farmers' Welfare in India: A State Wise Analysis

DEAR has prepared a booklet titled ‘Farmers’ Welfare in India-A State-wise Analysis’ containing two parts (Part A and B). Part A attempts to understand the variation in agricultural performance across states through the farmers’ welfare approach. Agricultural development is viewed from production perspective and with the announcement of the goal of ‘doubling farmers’ income by 2022’ by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, the paradigm is shifted to income. This booklet tries to capture the interstate variation in farmers’ welfare through various indicators representing defined dimensions of farmers’ welfare.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1710224557farmers-welfare-in-india-a-state-wise-analysis.pdf

B. Writings on Rural Economy

DEAR has prepared a booklet titled ' Writings on Rural Economy' (ISBN number 9789354571763) covering various aspects of rural economy ranging from impact of COVID-19, credit flow in North-Eastern India, UPI as pandemic-proof digital payment tool, agri-reforms, food-smart agriculture, regulated farming, oil palm scenario in India, vocal for local, empowering farmers through FPOs, handloom sector, life on land, farm loan waiver, performance of agri-exports, etc.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/Fppbook/2021/april-2021/Writings-on-Rural-Economy-nabnet/

C. Achieving an Equal Future

To commemorate International Women's Day, DEAR published a booklet titled ‘Achieving an Equal Future’. The booklet comprises a collection of women’s writings on issues that confront women. The booklet covers a multitude of aspects such as feminization of agriculture, women in agriculture-allied sectors, labour force participation, valuing women’s work, microfinance, sustainable development, climate change, and livelihood opportunities for Jogini women. The booklet also has a section with short narrations to shed light on deeper issues related to women in our society.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/0605214838Womens%20Day-booklet.pdf

D. A Quarter and Four of Indian Economy

This booklet chronicles the happenings in world and Indian economy for past five quarters. We chart out the Indian economy as we have seen week-by-week and month-by-month over the last five quarters (April 2021 to June 2022).

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1708220848a-quarter-and-four.pdf

NABARD Working Paper Series

  • Five Decades of India's Agricultural Growth across Crops: Emerging Trends and Patterns
    By: Dr. Vinod Kumar, GM, DEAR

This paper analyses the trends and pattern in agricultural growth and crop output growth at the national level, using time series data from 1967-68 to 2020-21 from published sources. It points towards a definite shift from foodgrains to non-foodgrains, such as fruits and vegetables, oilseeds, fiber, and condiments and spices, whose share in both area and in value of output has been increasing during the study period.

  • NAFINDEX: Measure of Financial Inclusion based on NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) Data
    By: Dr. K J S Satyasai, CGM DEAR and Dr. Ashutosh Kumar, DGM DEAR

NABARD constructed NAFINDEX a measure of state wise Financial Inclusion based on NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) Data. It has been presented in the form of a working paper. Three dimensions, traditional banking products, modern banking products, and payment systems, are considered for constructing the index.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1008204111WP2020_1.pdf

F. Rural Pulse

NABARD publishes Rural Pulse, a short policy prescription based on analytical research by staff which also acts as a platform for knowledge dissemination. Till date 38 issues of Rural Pulse have been published. In the recent past following issues of Rural Pulse were published covering topics like COVID-19 Crisis through a Reverse Migration Lens, The Indian Handloom Sector: A Snapshot, and Approach to Measuring Farmers’ Welfare, etc.:

i. NAFINDEX: Measure of Financial Inclusion based on NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) Data

Dr. K J S Satyasai, CGM DEAR and Dr. Ashutosh Kumar, DGM DEAR

Financial inclusion (FI) is a multi-dimensional phenomenon unlike its pre-cursor concepts of access to credit or access to savings bank account which define financial inclusion in a narrow sense. Hence, measuring financial inclusion is complicated and requires developing a suitable index. FI index should manifest the actual usage of financial services in terms of breadth, intensity and extent of digital penetration. This paper, therefore, propose NAFINDEX, based on state-wise household level access to financial services based on field level data from NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) 2016-17.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2106212528Rural%20Pulse%20Issue%20XXXIII.pdf

ii. Sparking Yellow Revolution in India Again

Dr. Vinod Kumar, GM DEAR and Abhishek Tiwari, AM DEAR

India is the fourth largest producer of oilseeds accounting for about 20% of the global area and 10% of the global production. The oilseed crops have registered significant growth in area and production in last 30 years. However, compared to cereals like paddy and wheat, the growth rate of area and production of oilseeds is insignificant with wide variability in their yield in different states of the country. It has explored the growth performance and dynamics of major oilseed crops in the country. Reduction in yield gap and adoption of new technology can improve India’s oilseeds production and make India Atmanirbhar (self-sufficient) in oilseeds.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2106212557Rural%20Pulse%20Issue%20XXXIV%20(1).pdf

iii. Indian Handloom Sector: A snapshot

Dr. KJS Satyasai, CGM DEAR and Benjamin Thomas Ipe, AM DEAR

India’s tryst with the Handloom sector dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization. The sector played a very important role in India’s freedom struggle. Having been the major employer after agriculture, befittingly enough, the Government of India has been celebrating August 7th as National Handloom Day since 2015. Swadeshi movement was launched in 1905 on this date to protest against the British government. As India celebrates its 7th National Handloom Day on August 7th, 2021 this special edition of Rural Pulse provided some insights into the sector from the recent 4th Handloom Census released by the Ministry of Textiles.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/0510214344rural-pulse-special-issue.pdf

iv. Market Vulnerabilities and Potential of Horticulture Crop in India

Dr. Vinod Kumar GM, DEAR, Abhishek Tiwari, AM DEAR and Saad bin Afroz AM DEAR

Indian agriculture sector today stands in the midst of a horticultural revolution. Horticulture contributes 30.4 per cent of the agriculture Gross Domestic Product (GDP) using only 13.1 per cent of gross cropped area. Over the years, total horticulture production in the country has surpassed the total foodgrains production, achieving a higher production record every year. Despite all these achievements, horticulture sector is currently facing the problem of post-harvest losses, lack of storage infrastructure, price seasonality and market volatility. Urgent steps are needed to integrate and revamp horticulture production and value chain system, which will promote production of healthier and more nutritious foods and improve the income of farmers’. In the coming years, agri start-ups and Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) are bound to play major role in creating backward and forward linkages necessary for revamping the horticultural value chain.

v. COVID-19 Crisis through a Reverse Migration Lens

By: Balwinder Kaur and Shivangi Shubham

The unseen exodus of migrants was one of the major cataclysms that arose during the pandemic. Most of these reverse migrants had been engaged in the informal sector without access to social protection and little money for food or housing. Back in the village, the reverse migrants were back to square one and witnessed a significant decline in income. Majority of them had to resort to dissaving and borrowing, which was mostly taken from informal sources. Agriculture and employment schemes such as MNREGA proved to be a cushion amidst this gloominess. Over a year and a half into the pandemic, aspirations, and hope for better opportunities remain prevalent with the majority (55%) of the reverse migrants surveyed expressed desire to go back, while a significant chunk (20%) were unable to make up their mind. The migrant catastrophe should be a lesson and viewed as an opportunity to rethink the whole aspect of migration.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2312213756rural-pulse-covid-induced-migration-final-comments.pdf

vi. Approach to Measuring Farmers' Welfare

By: K J S Satyasai, CGM DEAR, Ashutosh Kumar, DGM DEAR and Neha Gupta, AM DEAR

Disparate agricultural development across regions and states has generated much interest among academicians and policy makers alike. Most studies measured inter-state variations in output, gross domestic product or gross value added and explained the differences in terms of differential input use, infrastructure, etc. The focus has been on production. With paradigm shift to farmer’s income and then to welfare, this paper discusses farmers’ welfare as a multi-dimensional construct and measures inter-state variation in the same.An elaborate version of this article has been presented and published in Agricultural Economics Research Review (AERR), 2021, 34 (Conference Number). Based on the feedback received, we have improvised the methodology by refining the indicators.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/0607220511rural-pulse-issue-no-xxxvii.pdf

vii. Financing Agricultural Value Chains: With FPOs as Pivots

By: Subrat Kumar Nanda, GM, Maharashtra RO, Benjamin Thomas Ipe, AM DEAR and K J S Satyasai, CGM DEAR

India has come a long way from being a food-scarce nation in the 1960s to a food surplus nation thereafter. However, the record levels of production that India has achieved has not translated into increased well-being for the farming community in India in a commensurate manner. A vital cog in increasing farmers’ income will be the extent of credit penetration to the ultimate farmer. With changing consumer preferences towards branded, well-packed, safe and healthy food there has been increasing focus on organized agriculture value chains (AVCs) and their financing. Farmer producer organisations (FPOs) and supermarket chains will play a very important role in this revolution. This paper proposes AVC financing models with FPOs and supermarket chains as anchors.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/0808222219rural-pulse-issue-XXXVIII.pdf

viii. Nutri-Cereals for a Healthy Economy

By: Benjamin Thomas Ipe, AM DEAR and Dr. K J Satyasai, CGM DEAR

Over last seven decades millets (known as coarse cereals) lost their area to rice and wheat and were considered inferior goods as their consumption declined with increase in consumer’s income. With proven nutraceutical benefits, millets, rightly renamed ‘nutri-cereals’, now turned superior grains as higher income groups of the society are substituting them for rice and wheat. Several value-added products are coming into the market to enhance acceptability of millets. They are oldest known foods to mankind cultivated since 8000 B.C. This paper discusses the millet economy in brief.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1710220625nabard-rural-pulse-Issue-no-xxxviii-June-July-2022.pdf

G. Publication under 'Research and Policy Series'

The ‘Research and Policy’ series, is an attempt to get a glimpse of hard core research findings in a capsule form thereby making it more effective and communicative to policy makers. The group of researchers who agreed to prepare a review of research are experts in their field and have dedicated their whole careers to agricultural research. The aim of this Research and Policy series is not just to get literature surveys but to get researcher’s heart and their experience which they gained during their long passionate innings. The papers in this series have covered topics ranging from climate change to agricultural price policy, value chain, start-ups, livestock, etc. highlighting various issues, policy relevance, prescription, and suggestions for future papers on the themes of interest to NABARD. The papers released under this series are as under:

i. Agricultural Price Policy for Ensuring Food Security in India

Authors- Dr. Praduman Kumar and Dr. Surabhi Mittal

The entitled paper chartes out how the objective of price policy has been changing over the decades. The agricultural price policies were formulated to meet the food needs (in 1960s), as a risk insurance to cover fluctuations, to influence the cropping pattern and to respond to international prices and trade requirements (mid-1980s), to help improve the targeting of India’s large food subsidy outlays and decentralise public foodgrain operations (mid-1990s), and to provide MSP as a remunerative price, and not just a price that provide a safeguard against market fluctuations (since early 2000). An effective MSP programme is essential to protect the welfare of farmers. The authors have rightly covered various aspects such as domestic and international demand, climate change, technical change, link between factor-product prices, as price policy cannot be pursued in isolation.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1507223217Paper-1-%20Agri-Price-Policy-Dr.Kumar-&-Mittal.pdf

ii. Under the Shadow of Development: Rainfed Agriculture and Droughts in Agricultural Development of India

Author- Dr. R S Deshpande

The entitled paper charted out evolution of Policy on rainfed areas and mitigation of droughts since colonial period and focuses on how distress in agricultural sector majorly due to droughts and rainfed areas gets directly echoed in the national income. It also discusses various interventions and initiatives undertaken at the state and national level, their issues and way ahead. Further after analyzing the drought situation and history of meeting the drought with Policy tools this paper goes ahead to suggest a few important Policy leads.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2007223429Paper-2-%20Rainfed-Agriculture-Dr.-Deshpande.pdf

iii. Startups Digitising Indian Food System Innovations, Survival and Investment

Author- Dr. Chandra S R Nuthalapati

This paper aims to analyse the ongoing digitisation of the Indian food system, nature of innovations in agricultural startups using an open innovation framework, ¬spatial and sectoral distribution and factors that ¬influence their -survival, ¬investment, and revenue. The paper also provides ¬examples of how startups at¬ different levels in food value chain are leveraging technology to provide services which enables the actors in the chain to make informed decision ranging from what, when and how to grow to delivery of their produce till the last mile of consumption for better price realisation.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1507223444Paper-3-Startups-Digitising-Food-System-Dr.Chandra.pdf

iv. Climate Change and Risk Management in Indian Agriculture

Author- Dr. Pratap Singh Birthal

The paper analyses different approaches used for estimation and predictions of Climate change impact on various crops for different time periods, geographies, crop seasons and cpmatic conditions majorly in terms of yield loss. Further, it analyses how different management strategies such as crop diversification, irrigation, stress-tolerant seeds, agronomic management, crop insurance, social safety nets, etc reduces the risk and sensitivity to Climate change. The author also identifies a number of research gaps that must be addressed in pght of the predicted rise in the frequency of extreme Climate events in plausible future cpmatic scenarios. At the end the author highpghts way forward for designing and implementing effective popcies in making agriculture resipent to Climate change.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2007223845Paper-4-Climate-and-Risk-Management-Dr.-Birthal.pdf

v. Agricultural Technologies in India: A Review

Authors- Dr. P. K. Joshi and Dr. Deepak Varshney

The entitled paper highpghts the level of adoption pattern of different technologies, as well as the constraints in scapng up these technologies across various commodities, and geographies. It goes on to highpght key conditions for the successful adoption and implementation of agricultural technologies, and how these technologies have impacted farmers' income, natural resource management, input use efficiencies, employment generation, and so on. The paper uses cross-country evidence to demonstrate how investments in agricultural research and development have enormous potential; it also impresses on the rate of return on investments in various agricultural sectors. Finally, the authors discuss how the agricultural research popcies should be taken forward to address emerging agricultural challenges.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1507223612Paper-5-Agricultural-Tech-in-India-Dr.Joshi-&-Varshney.pdf

vi. Agricultural Challenges and Popcies for the 21st Century

Author- Dr. Ramesh Chand

The paper examines the severity and extent of various types of challenges confronting Indian agriculture, ranging from overexploitation of natural resources to smallholder viability to agricultural research and development. It also highlights key policies and initiatives that can be put in place to address these issues. While discussing the policies, the author thoroughly reviewed the current Agri-marketing and MSP policies and tries to provide solutions to major problems under the current policy setup. At the end, the author discusses various issues that must be debated to ensure sustainability of all the stakeholders in agricultural sector.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/1507223654Paper-6-Agri-Challenges-and-Popcies-Dr.Chand.pdf

5. Papers/Articles contributed by NABARD Officers in Outside Reputed Journals

Officers in NABARD have been contributing articles in reputed journals on topical issues related to the domain of NABARD, including FPO, financial inclusion, institutional credit, agricultural trade, farmers’ welfare, etc. The details of recent publications are as under:

A. Financial Inclusion in India

By: Dr. Ashutosh Kumar, DGM, DEAR and Shri Parmeshwar Lal Poddar, Mgr, DoR Kurukshetra (Hindi), March 2022

This article traces the various milestones in the journey of financial inclusion intended to bring excluded sections of the society under the banking fold and get benefitted out of the progress of the Indian economy. In the 75th year of Independence, Financial Inclusion holds immense importance and potential for mainstreaming the excluded sections of society. The Financial Inclusion Index, conceptuapsed by RBI, comprising three broad parameters viz., Access (35%), Usage (45%), and Quapty (20%) was 53.9 for period ending March 2021. There is a need to improve the score with focus on digital lending, financial education, and demand based banking services.

https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/tender/2309220440kurukshetra-article.pdf

B. Farmers' Welfare in India- A State-wise Analysis

By Dr. K.J.S Satyasai (CGM, DEAR), Dr. Ashutosh Kumar (DGM, DEAR) and Ms. Neha Gupta (AM, DEAR) Agricultural Economics Research Review 2021, 34 (Conference Number), AERA

Development literature is replete with comparative studies to understand the pattern of agricultural development across states as also the factors behind such disparities. Most studies measured inter-state variations in output, gross domestic product or gross value added and explained the differences in terms of differential input use, infrastructure, etc. The focus has been on production. Since there is a paradigm shift from production to farmers’ income and further, farmers’ welfare as enunciated by Dalwai (2019), the present paper seeks to identify indicators that can represent various dimensions of farmers’ welfare. Thus, this paper explores inter-state variation in 90 indicators under six dimensions, viz., (i) production (ii) post-production (iii) infrastructure (iv) social development (v) ecological aspects and (vi) policy & fiscal environment. Besides, there is also an attempt to construct Farmers’ Welfare Index (FaWI) combining these indicators.

C. Rural Credit: Can We Make it More Inclusive?

By: Dr. K J S Satyasai, CGM, DEAR and Abhishek Tiwari, AM, DEAR ICAR National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Special Proceedings, 23rd Annual Conference of SSCA, August 2021

Exclusion from institutional rural credit network has been on at least three fronts: geography, gender and farm households. This paper discusses these three variants of exclusion, interventions and popcies that were implemented over the decades, progress so far and way forward.

D. Trends and Performance of India's Agricultural Trade in the Midst of COVID-19 Pandemic

By Dr. Vinod Kumar Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 76, No 3, July –September 2021

Agricultural sector has played an important role in the economic development of the country not only by earning precious foreign exchange by exporting agricultural commod1ttes but also for achieving the goal of an Aatmanirbhar Bharat. The present study attempts to analyse the trends and performance of agricultural trade during 1990-91 to 2020-21, with the last year coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic.

A. Growth and Issues in Agricultural Credit with Special Reference to Uttar Pradesh: A District Level Analysis

By: Dr. Vinod Kumar, GM, DEAR Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, (Conf.Spl.), 35(1), 2021

This paper analyses the issues of agricultural credit flow with special focus on intra -state disparities in agricultural credit flow in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The per hectare credit flow of Uttar Pradesh indicates an impressive increase from ?15,431 in 2011-12 to ?43,718 in 2019-20. However, there exists wide inter-district disparities in the state with credit flow ranging from the low of ?13,862 per hectare in the district of Banda to ?1,86,787 per hectare in Meerut district.

B. Institutional Credit Flow in North Eastern Region: Issues and Solutions

By: Talung Taloh, AM, Arunachal Pradesh RO and Vinod Kumar, GM, DEAR Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol.35 No.2 (Special Issue) May - August, 2021

This paper looks at the credit scenario in NER and tries to identity the major constraints in credit flow and solutions. This paper highlights the wide difference among NE states in terms of infrastructure, credit stream, industrialisation, and other financial and non-financial parameters. It points towards higher share of Ground Level Credit in Assam at 65.31 per cent in 2019-20. In addition, Assam’s GCA as percentage of total Geographical Area stands as 51.8 per cent in 2019 as compared to national average of 37.7 per cent while Arunachal Pradesh has just 2.9 per cent. The credit- deposit ratio of Assam is also higher than the regional average of NER.

C. Market Vulnerabilities and Potential of Horticulture Crops in India: With Special Reference to TOP Crops

By: Abhishek Tiwari, AM DEAR, Saad Bin Afroz, AM DEAR and Vinod Kumar, GM, DEAR Indian Journalof Agricultural Marketing, 35(3), 2021

This paper analyses the trends in overall production, price volatility and issues related to marketing of horticulture produce with special emphasis on TOP crops. Historical price volatility measurement of TOP crops suggest that price volatility is highest among the onion followed by tomato while price seasonality is highest in tomato. As potato has the highest storage capacity, it has lowest volatility among the TOP crops. Horticulture has been recognized as one of the rapidly growing and evolving sectors having the potential to lead us to our goal of doubling farmer’s income by 2022 through backward and forward linkages. Unless the increase in production is met with sizeable increase in cold storage capacities and transportation to the consumer base, the farmers will not be able to receive their fair share of income.

D. Understanding of FPOs Business Ecosystem and Strategies to Tap Potential

By: Dr. Ashutosh Kumar, DGM DEAR and Dr. Vinod Kumar, GM DEAR Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, Vol.36(1), January-April 2022

Bringing together farmers to form Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) is considered to be a promising approach to address the challenges facing the small holders by providing them the benefits of economies of scale. Presently, there are around 10,000 FPOs existing in the country, out of which NABARD has promoted 5060 (about 50%) while remaining FPOs are promoted by Small Farmers’ Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC), National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) and by other agencies.

6. Student Engagement Initiatives:

i. Student Internship Scheme

NABARD has been engaging with the student community through Student Internship Scheme (SIS) from 2oo5-o6. So far, more than 800 students have completed their internship with NABARD since inception. As a part of the internship, students conduct short-term assignments/studies in the areas of agriculture and rural development with mandatory field work. During the year 2o21-22, 59 students successfully completed the student internship scheme across various ROs/TEs and HO. For the scheme year 2022-23, 01 seat was allotted to each RO/TE and 05 seats to Head Office (total 40 seats).

To ensure that we have a decent number of reports on a particular topic so that we can draw reasonable insights, all interns selected under SIS 2022-23 were required to study one of the following three NABARD interventions: i. Farmers Producer Organisations (FPO)/Off-Farm Producer Organisations (OFPO), ii. Agriculture Startups/Skill Development initiatives of NABARD, iii. Watershed Development Programmes.

ii. Grameen Chintan Scheme

a. Support to M.Sc. Thesis

To provide access and opportunity to students with a good academic background to undertake deeper research work and prepare a 'thesis' on the topical issues related to agriculture and rural development. The scheme has been operationapsed in 04 premier agricultural universities across the country (details below):

1. ANGRAU, Andhra Pradesh
2. UAS, Karnataka
3. GBPANT, Uttarakhand
4. College of Agriculture, Pune, Maharashtra

b. NABARD Outstanding Ph.D. Thesis Award

NABARD Award for Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Research has been instituted to provide recognition to outstanding original research done by doctoral degree students. The award aims to provide an additional incentive for enhancing the quapty of doctoral thesis research and explore areas of relevance to NABARD. We envision that the award will incentivize high quapty doctoral thesis research in our emerging priority areas.

For the Award year 2021, a total of 03 scholars from eminent agriculture universities namely, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore; University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur and Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni have been conferred the award which were announced on the occasion of 41st Foundation Day (12 July 2022) of NABARD.

c. NABARD Gold Medal Award

NABARD Gold Medal Award for M.Sc. and Ph.D. students has been instituted with the objective to recognize the exceptional achievements of postgraduate and Ph.D. students who have demonstrated resipence, learning ability and positive impact in their studies. The Award has been instituted at IARI, New Delhi. For the award year 2021-22, 01 M.Sc. and 01 Ph.D. student have been awarded with the NABARD Prof. V.L.Chopra Gold Medal Award.

Important Links

Contact Information

Dr. K.J. Satyasai
Chief General Manager
4th Floor, ‘C’ Wing, C-24, ‘G’ Block
Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra (East)
Mumbai-400051
Tel: (91) 022 – 26523617
Fax: (91) 022 – 26530086
E-mail Address: dear@nabard.org

Information under RTI – Section 4(1)(b)