The Green Revolution
Technologies involving greater use of synthetic agro-chemicals such as
fertilizers and pesticides with adoption of nutrient responsive, high yielding
varieties of crops boosted the productivity in most of the crops. However, the
increase in productivity slowed down and in some cases the productivity
declined. Environmental and health problems cropped up in many areas due to the
chemical intensive agriculture.
2. International Scenario
In the international market rice
is traded under two main categories such as Fragrant and Non Fragrant. In case
of fragrant rice, India dominates the trade with its Basmati Rice followed by
Pakistan. Basmati rice is the leading aromatic fine quality rice of the world
trade and it fetches good export price in the international markets.
Basmati exports from India peak
during March-April period and the November-December period. Gulf region is the
major market for Indian basmati rice and inside Gulf, Saudi Arabia accounts for
the major chunk of basmati imports from India. European Union is the next
important market for Indian basmati. The EU buys roughly around 1-1.5 lakh tons
of basmati rice on an average.
3. National Scenario
India is the largest producer
and exporter of basmati rice in the world. The annual production in the country
hovers at around 10-15 lakh tons a year, of which around two-thirds is exported.
The remaining is consumed, within the country
During 2006-07, the country
officially exported 10.41 lakh tonnes of basmati rice, valued at Rs 2,778.31
crore, with the corresponding figures for non-basmati being 37.05 lakh tonnes
and Rs 4,257.88 crore. The basmati rice
cultivating districts of India is given in Table 1.
Table 1. Rice Cultivating
Districts of India
Haryana and Punjab
Karnal, Panipat, Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Amritsar, Fatehgarh, Gurdaspur, Basmati
Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Patiala, Sangrur, Roopnagar
Kangra, Solan, Una, Mandi, Sirmour
Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Pilibhit, Bareilly, Bijnor, Moradabad,
Jyotibaphule Nagar, Rampur, Sitapur & Rae Bareli
Udham Singh Nagar, Haridwar and Dehradun
4. Organic Farming
Organic production systems are
based on specific standards precisely formulated for food production and aim at
achieving agro-eco system which are socially acceptable and ecologically
sustainable. Organic farming uses ecological principles as the basis of crop
management and animal husbandry.
Codex Alimentaris Commission - a
joint body of FAO / WHO defines Organic Agriculture as Holistic Food Production
Management System which promotes and enhances health of agro-eco systems
including bio-diversity and soil biological activity and emphasizes on use of
management practices in preference to use of off-farm synthetic inputs. Organic
agriculture is knowledge based rather than input based and aims at optimization
rather than maximization.
5. Organic Production of Basmati Rice
Rice (Oryza sativa),
one of the three most important food crops in the world, forms the staple diet
of 2.7 billion people. It occupies 150 million ha, producing 573 million
tonnes of paddy with average productivity of 3.83 t / ha. In India rice
accounts for 40% of Food Grain Production. Basmati rice is known as king of
rice and is priced for its characteristic long-grain, subtle aroma and
delicious taste. It is one of the major agricultural commodities the country
exports every year to earn foreign exchange. Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar
Pradesh are traditional basmati rice growing areas. However, owing to
photo-insensitivity of semi dwarf basmati varieties like Pusa Basmati I, the
latter can be grown in any parts of India. The package of
practices being followed for cultivation of basmati rice is covered in the
Optimum climatic requirements
for rice for its normal growth include 20 - 35oC temperature through out the
crop duration, clear sky during day, low night temperatures for reduced
maintenance respiration and equitable distribution of rainfall.
Rice is grown in all types of
soils. However, soils capable of holding water for longer periods such as
heavy neutral soils ( clay, clay loam and loamy) are most suited for its
cultivation. It is grown normally in soils with soil reaction (pH) ranging
from 5.0 to 8.0. Saline or alkaline soils adversely affects its growth and
Rice is cultivated by growing
nursery and transplanting of seedlings.
Basmati 370 and Taraori
Basmati are the widely cultivated varieties of export quality for decades.
Breeding efforts have resulted in development of the world’s first high
yielding, semi dwarf Basmati variety - Pusa Basmati I, combining the quality
features of traditional varieties and yield potential of high yielding
Farmers in Punjab, Haryana and
Uttar Pradesh have taken to Pusa-1121 and CSR-30, both in view of higher
yields as well as remunerative prices. Pusa-1121 yields roughly 47 - 50
quintals a hectare, against 50 - 52 quintal for Pusa Basmati-1, 35 - 38
quintals for CSR-30 and 22 -25 quintals for traditional varieties such as
HBC-19 (Taraori). In the past couple of years, the trend has been to replace
Pusa Basmati-1 with Pusa-1121 and HBC-19 with CSR-30.
The grain from 1121 has better
aroma and lower chalkiness than Pusa Basmati-1, while yields are more or less
the same. CSR-30 has higher yields and is salinity resistant compared to
traditional cultivars, with very similar grain quality. A lot of CSR-30, in
fact, gets shipped out as traditional basmati.
Generally, spacing of plants for
rice is 30 cm x 25 cm.
5.6 Land Preparation
The main field is dry ploughed 3
weeks before planting and submerged with 5-10 cm standing water. After
incorporating 10 tonnes of organic manure or 10-20 tonnes of green manure, the
field is properly levelled. Land preparation for rice is one time ploughing and
one time puddling. Field should be flooded at least 3 days before
Three week old seedlings from
nursery are transplanted in puddled condition on rectangular grid.
Manuring is done by applying FYM
at the rate of 5 t per ha and Vermicompost at the rate of 5 t per ha.
Proper water management
facilitates good tillering and better nitrogen uptake. Uniform levelling of
field and proper drainage are most essential for effective water management. It
is ideal to maintain 2-5 cm of water through out the growing season.
As the rice crop is grown
under submerged condition weed growth is minimal. Hand weeding must be done 2
to 3 times at 20 days interval starting from 20 days after planting.
5.11 Pests and Diseases
Diseases and insect pests take a
heavy toll of rice crop. Neck blast disease in Basmati is becoming increasingly
severe. Sheath blight causes considerable damage at endemic sites. False smut
and sheath rot have emerged as new threats. Brown plant hopper, gall midge,
yellow stem borer are some of the common insect pests of the high yielding
varieties of rice.
Natural enemies of insect pests
on rice are of great value in integrated pest management for sustainable rice
production with possibility of replacement of need for pesticide input. By
deploying effective bioagents like Trichogramma japonicum and T.
chilonis in pest infested areas, damage caused by stem borer and leaf folder
can be reduced substantially. Inundative release of these egg parasites 5 – 9
times @ 10 adults / m2 and one release site per 100 m2 ,
at an interval of 7 – 10 days results in 45 – 60 % decrease in pest damage.
Installation of 20 pheromone traps / ha each with 5 mg pheromone impregnate,
moderately reduces infestation of stem borer. Application of biocontrol agents
like Trichoderma viride and T. harzianum controls blast disease.
Harvesting is to be undertaken
as soon as rice grains mature, not withstanding stalks remaining green to avoid
shattering of grain and development of sun cracks. In early and medium duration
varieties 25 to 30 days after flowering and 35 – 40 days after in late
varieties are considered proper stage of harvesting. Moisture content of paddy
at harvesting should be 20 % and harvested grain is dried under shade to bring
down the moisture content to 14 % for storage and milling
The yield of the crop reduces in
the beginning of conversion period as application of chemical fertilizers is
withdrawn. However, as the process of conversion progresses the yield reaches
and stabilize at 90% of the normal yields in 4th year. The year-wise yields
assumed for rice are as under :-
(yield in q /ha)
Basmati rice has a ready market.
Basmati rice is regularly exported to other countries. APEDA is providing the
necessary guidance to the farmers and also extending incentives to encourage
organic cultivation and export of rice.
7. Financial Aspect
7.1 Cost of cultivation
The cost of cultivation of 1 ha
organic basmati works out to Rs. 40200. The details of cost of cultivation
including techno economic parameters and economics are given in Annexure-I.
7.2 Margin Money
The percentage of margin/ down
payment to cost of development prescribed is 5%, 10%, and 15% for small, medium
and large farmers respectively. The rest of the cost of development is provided
as bank loan. Margin provided in the present model is 10%.
7.3 Bank Loan
Bank loan of 85 to 95% is
available from financial institutions. Bank loan considered for the model is
7.4 Rate of Interest
The rate of interest to be
charged to the ultimate borrower would be guided by RBI guidelines issued from
time to time. However, the ultimate lending rate has been considered as 12% per
annum for working out the bankability of the model scheme.
Banks are guided by RBI
guidelines issued from time to time in this regard.
The year wise net income from
organic farming of Basmati rice is furnished below:
Amount in Rs.
The activity is technically feasible, financially viable and bankable.