Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established in 1975 under the provisions of the Ordinance promulgated on the 26th September 1975 and followed by Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976 with a view to develop the rural economy and to create a supplementary channel to the 'Cooperative Credit Structure' with a view to enlarge institutional credit for the rural and agriculture sector.
The Government of India, the concerned State Government and the bank, which had sponsored the RRB contributed to the share capital of RRBs in the proportion of 50%, 15% and 35%, respectively. The area of operation of the RRBs is limited to notified few districts in a State. The RRBs mobilise deposits primarily from rural/semi-urban areas and provide loans and advances mostly to small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers , rural artisans and other segments of priority sector.
The RBI in 2001 constituted a Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr V S Vyas on “Flow of Credit to Agriculture and Related Activities from the Banking System” which examined relevance of RRBs in the rural credit system and the alternatives for making it viable. The consolidation process thus was initiated in the year 2005 as an off-shoot of Dr Vyas Committee Recommendations. First phase of amalgamation was initiated Sponsor Bank-wise within a State in 2005 and the second phase was across the Sponsor banks within a State in 2012. The process was initiated with a view to provide better customer service by having better infrastructure, computerization, experienced work force, common publicity and marketing efforts etc. The amalgamated RRBs also benefit from larger area of operation, enhanced credit exposure limits for high value and diverse banking activities. As a result of amalgamation, number of the RRBs has been reduced from 196 to 64 as on 31 March 2013. The number of branches of RRBs increased to 17856 as on 31 March 2013 covering 635 districts throughout the country.
2. Performance of RRBs during 2012-13(1 April 2012 – 31 March 2013) (Provisional)
2.1 Sources of Funds
The sources of funds of RRBs comprise of owned fund, deposits, borrowings from NABARD, Sponsor Banks and other sources including SIDBI and National Housing Bank.
2.1.1 Owned Funds
The owned funds of RRBs comprising of share capital, share capital deposits received from the shareholders and the reserves stood at 19304 crore as on 31 March 2013 as against 16462 crore as on 31 March 2012; registering a growth of 17.26%. The increase in owned funds to the tune of 2842 crore was mainly on account of accretion to reserves by the profit making RRBs. The share capital and share capital deposits together amounted to 6174 crore of total owned fund while the balance amount of 13130 crore represented reserves.
2.1.2.Recapitalisation of RRBs
(a) The Chakrabarty Committee reviewed the financial position of all RRBs in 2010 and recommended for recapitalisation of 40 out of 82 RRBs for strengthening their CRAR to the level of 9 per cent by 31 March 2012. According to the Committee, the remaining RRBs are in a position to achieve the desired level of CRAR on their own. Accepting the recommendations of the committee, the GOI along with other shareholders decided to recapitalise the RRBs by infusing funds to the extent of 2200 Crore. The shareholder wise proportion (GOI/Sponsor Banks/State Governments) is 50:35:15 respectively.
(b) As on 31 March 2013, an amount of 2015.86 crore has been released to 37 RRBs in 20 States. The released amount includes GoI’s contribution of 1003.92 crore, State Govt's contribution of 303.59 crore and Sponsor bank's contribution of 708.35 crore. The recapitalisation is complete in respect of 35 RRBs (5 in Odisha , 3 in MP, 2 in Uttarakhand, 2 in Jharkhand, 2 in Chhatisgarh, 2 in Bihar, 2 in Maharashtra, 3 in West Bengal, 5 in Rajasthan and one each in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura, J&K, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat & UT of Puducherry). GoI share 7.99 cr. is pending in respect of Manipur Rural Bank. Mizoram State Government has partially released 0.50 crore in respect of Mizoram Rural Bank and 2.80 crore is pending. Two State Govts. viz. UP(2 RRBs), & J&K (1 RRB) have not released any amount in respect of 3 RRBs operating in their states. Out of 35 fully recapitalised RRBs, 3 RRBs viz. Central Madhya Pradesh GB, Manipur Rural Bank and Mizoram GB have not achieved CRAR of 9 per cent as on 31.3.2013.
Deposits of RRBs increased from 186336 crore to 211458 crore during the year registering growth rate of 13.48 %. There are Thirty three (33) RRBs having deposits of more than 3000 crore each.