The Department of Economic Analysis and Research (DEAR) provides policy and action-oriented research support through macro-level data analysis and field-based feedback on issues of relevance to NABARD, the government and other stakeholders. It specialises in knowledge-driven activities relating to agriculture and rural development, as per the mandate of NABARD.
The strength of the department lies in the cadre of professional economists and its ability to network and collaborate with other reputed institutions.
2. Vision of Department of Economic Analysis and Research
“To develop into a quality research wing of NABARD that conducts and coordinates research to generate ideas, help evolve policy inputs, evaluate policy alternatives that would help the management in realising the objectives of the organisation, and produce research output that improves NABARD’s understanding of the dimensions of rural credit in particular and overall rural development in general.”
3. Core Functions of the Department
A. Providing policy inputs to the management by conducting :
- in-house studies and research activities spearheaded by subject matter specialists within the organisation at the Head Office and Regional Offices
- studies in collaboration with reputed research institutions on state/region-specific issues
B. Managing the Research and Development (R&D) Fund
The R&D Fund was established by the bank in accordance with the provisions of the NABARD Act, 1981, to extend grant support for the following purposes:
Studies and research projects supported under the R&D Fund aim at acquiring new insights into the problems of agriculture and rural development through in-depth studies, applied research and innovative approaches.
The R&D Fund is also utilised for sponsoring seminars to help disseminate research findings on themes related to agriculture and rural development in multi-fold spheres and help relevant policy formulation.
NABARD Chair Unit Scheme
The NABARD Chair Unit Scheme is designed to establish strong research linkages with reputed institutions with the objective of pursuing extensive research in NABARD’s areas of interest for policy support to the management.
DEAR brings out publications in the form of Occasional Papers, Research Study Series, Knowledge Series, R&D Digest, Rural Pulse, Eco-think, Commodity Trend, etc. for wider dissemination of research outcomes among stakeholders. These are uploaded on our website to reach out to a larger audience.
Student Internship Scheme Programme
The objective of the Scheme is to assign short-term tasks/projects/studies useful and relevant to NABARD to deserving students pursuing post-graduate degree in Agriculture and allied disciplines, Agri-business, Economics, Social Sciences, Integrated course (including law) and Management from Institutes/ Universities of repute. The scheme is expected to provide valuable feedback through studies/projects undertaken by the students on themes of interest to NABARD. Implementation of Student Internship Scheme (SIS) is automated through SIS web portal from the year 2021.
Publication of Annual Report of NABARD
The department publishes the Annual Report of NABARD which documents a comprehensive picture of the major activities undertaken by NABARD in the previous financial year. It also carries the audited accounts of the relevant year along with key statistical statements as an adjunct.
D. Publication of Sustainability Report
NABARD prepares its Sustainability Report based on GRI Guidelines. It gives information about economic, environmental, social and governance performance of the organisation. It highlights critical impacts of the organisation’s functioning on environment, society and economy.
E. Manage the Rural Economy Tracker
The department has evolved a data tracking system, titled Rural Economy Tracker (RET) by bringing all important data relating to various aspects of the rural economy of India together. RET tracks 63 different parameters, including the rainfall situation, agricultural production, state-wise cold storage capacity, state-wise livestock population and production of major livestock products, wholesale price index (WPI) and consumer price index (CPI), etc.
F. Provide support to Committees/Expert Working Groups
DEAR provides inputs to various committees for discussions in various fora on an array of topics such as Agricultural Credit, Rural Distress, Value Chains, Doubling Farmers’ Income (DFI), FPOs, Agricultural Growth, Climate change and Social stock exchange. The department and its officers provide academic / secretarial support to the Committees where NABARD plays a role.
G. Maintain the Central Library of NABARD
DEAR maintains a well-stocked Central Library at its head office with over 25,000 books besides journals, newspapers, magazines and on-line subscriptions, as knowledge support to its officials data.
4. Broad Achievements of the Department
Findings based on the studies conducted by DEAR have facilitated/ policy refinements of NABARD, the Government of India, RBI, etc. as in the case of doubling of farmers’ income, Household Indebtedness and Assets Based on Debt & Investment Surveys, Livelihood as well as financial aspects including credit, savings, investments, insurance, pension and remittance/payments, estimates of crop and water productivity of 10 major agricultural crops in the dominant districts and states of India, etc.
NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) 2016-17
NABARD released All India NABARD Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) Report on August 16, 2018. The survey focused on livelihood and financial inclusion aspects of rural households to generate a deeper understanding of financial inclusion at the grass root level.
Foundation Day Lectures- A collection
On the occasion of NABARD’s 39th Foundation Day (July 12, 2020), NABARD brought out a booklet with a collection of Foundation Day lectures presented over the years on key themes concerning agriculture and the rural sector which remain relevant even today. The themes are varied in nature and cover issues such as access to rural credit, coping with agrarian distress, creating an enabling environment for doubling of farmers' income, etc. that concern the rural Indian farmer.
NAFINDEX: Measure of Financial Inclusion based on NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) Data
NABARD constructed NAFINDEX, a measure of state-wise Financial Inclusion based on NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) Data
It has been presented in the form of a working paper. The three dimensions of traditional banking products, modern banking products, and payment systems are considered for constructing the index.
Impact Assessment of COVID-19 on Indian Agriculture and Rural Economy
NABARD undertook a quick survey to ascertain the impact of Covid-19 induced lockdown on agriculture and rural economy. The survey covered 560 districts of 33 States/UTs manned by 401 DDMs of NABARD. It provides valuable insight on the impact of the pandemic, which would guide bankers and development practitioners to initiate necessary policy initiatives and interventions for inclusive and equitable growth of the distressed sections of the society in times of Covid-19 pandemic. The survey report pointed towards significant decline in production in allied sectors and fall in smooth operation of agriculture marketing through mandis in 74 per cent of sample districts.
Sustainability, Viability, and Governance of DCCB in India- A case study of Vidyasagar DCCB in West Bengal
NABARD undertook a study with the aim to find the financial soundness, viability, and sustainability of District Central Cooperative (DCC) Banks in general with a case study of Vidyasagar DCC Bank, West Bengal. This study revealed that Vidyasagar DCCB has shown improvement on many counts of risk, liquidity, efficiency, and profitability. The study report raised concern over declining share of long-term financing and falling net interest margin from 3.2 percent in 2009 to 2.1 percent in 2019 and recommended exploring long-term finance prospects to augment presently declining net interest margin.
Sustainability of old Self Help Groups in Telangana
The Self Help Groups (SHG) movement in India has emerged as the world’s largest and most successful network of community-based organisations due to the continued efforts of government, non-government organisations (NGO), banks and non-banking financial companies (NBFC). In this context, NABARD undertook a study to understand the quality of old SHGs - sustained for more than 10 years, the factors that contributed to the sustainability of SHGs and the changes in the socio-economic conditions of SHG members and their households. The study report highlighted that SHGs played a vital role in the promotion of enterprise activities and has reduced the dependency of SHG members on moneylenders.
- (i) A study on Renewed Effort at Construction of State-wise Rural Infrastructure Indices (RII) by EPWRF, Mumbai reveals wide inter-state disparity with respect to rural infrastructural development. The study recommended higher share of funding towards rural social sector infrastructure such as health care system and delivery, provision of drinking water and sanitation and improving educational facilities. For more fair and balanced approach, it recommended that around 2% to 3% of the total RIDF loan should be reserved for the bottom 10 states and the remaining can be distributed to other states.
- (ii) A study on the Agrarian Structure and Transformation of the Institutional Framework of Agriculture Sector using data from Agricultural Censuses by EPWRF, Mumbai aimed to intertwine the results of all the 10 Agricultural Censuses (ACs) conducted since 1970-71 covering about half a century. The study found that there is a drastic reduction in the total operated area and net cultivated area in the post-1990 period. While cropping intensity has increased over the years, it is found to be inversely related to the size of land holdings. However, findings show that there was a reduction in the variability in cropping intensity across different farm sizes besides being higher for the medium- and large-size holdings compared to that of Small and Semi-marginal size classes.
The study recommends arresting the declining trend in the operated and cultivated areas, revisiting the land related policies for large holdings, stepping up public investment in canal irrigation, channelising more credit to small and marginal land holders to improve farm-based minor irrigation facilities.
- (iii) A study on improving livelihood opportunities for Jogini women in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh through SHG and other promotional schemes focussed on the ways to bring out the Joginis and women affected by trafficking from the present position to the mainstream. It recommended that a dedicated state level committee may be formed to oversee various aspects of the current welfare programs (i.e. address the issues of the lack of developmental support and provide effective backup for the women at all times) and ensure that the benefits are reaching all the eligible Basavin (as known in AP) women.
- (iv) A study on identifying the Most Remunerative Crop-Combination Regions in Haryana: A Spatial Temporal Analysis by Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, Chandigarh recommended greater need of developing area and crop specific processing units to enable farmers to sell their produce locally at adequate price.
a. Adequate MSP and efficient and prompt procurement on crops shall encourage farmers to opt for crop diversification. Among other things, rational and controlled demand driven cultivation; A ‘single window’ system for effective delivery and implementation of agricultural schemes, and an Area Specific Agriculture Plan was emphasised upon in this study.
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Writings on Rural Economy
DEAR has launched a booklet titled Writings on Rural Economy (ISBN number 9789354571763) covering various aspects of rural economy ranging from impact of COVID-19, credit flow in North-Eastern India, UPI as pandemic-proof digital payment tool, agri reforms, food-smart agriculture, regulated farming, oil palm scenario in India, vocal for local, empowering farmers through FPOs, handloom sector, life on land, farm loan waiver, performance of agri-exports, etc.
Achieving an Equal Future
To commemorate International Women's Day, DEAR published a booklet titled Achieving an Equal Future. The booklet comprises a collection of women’s writings on issues that concern women. The booklet covers a multitude of aspects including feminisation of agriculture, women in agriculture-allied sectors, labour force participation, valuing women’s work, microfinance, sustainable development, climate change, and livelihood opportunities for Jogini women. The booklet also has a section with short narrations to shed light on deeper issues related to women in our society.
Ongoing Projects and Schemes
A. NABARD has sponsored research on various subjects,including the following:
- Innovations in Food Value Chains
- Handholding (Capacity Building and Facilitation) of FPOs
- Sustainable Development Goals for Rural Maharashtra
- Farm Loan Waivers in India
- Assessing the trends for nutritional security and evaluating Zero Budgeting
Dr. K.J. Satyasai
Chief General Manager
4th Floor, ‘C’ Wing, C-24, ‘G’ Block
Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra (East)
Tel: (91) 022 – 26523617
Fax: (91) 022 – 26530086
E-mail Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Information under RTI – Section 4(1)(b)